Induction and Augmentation of Labor

Occasionally, the labor itself needs assistance, either in getting started or in progressing. There are several commonly used methods for each. Induction An induced labor is started artificially, by either chemical or physical stimulation....

Cardinal Movements of Labor

The cardinal movements of labor are the rotations of the baby as he moves through the pelvis. During labor, the baby must make specific rotations so that the widest diameters of his head and...

Fetal Presentation and Position

At term, most babies lie in the uterus upside down and facing the woman’s spine. Several variations are possible, however, and help determine whether any interventions, including a cesarean, will be needed. Presentation The...

Regional Analgesics and Anesthetics

A regional analgesic provides adequate pain relief without affecting motor abilities or level of consciousness. A regional anesthetic provides not only excellent pain relief, but it also results in the loss of motor sensations,...