How to Avoid Unnecessary Cesarean

A cesarean delivery may be necessary to save the life of the woman or baby. But an unnecessary cesarean should be avoided at all costs, as there are risks involved. Cesarean section is major...

Indications for Cesarean Birth

Cesarean deliveries are performed for many reasons. Because opinions vary concerning these reasons, you might want to get a second opinion if you are told that you need a c-section. Over one-third of the...

Family-Centered Cesarean Birth

A cesarean section is more than an operation. It is the birth of a baby. The way a father and mother feel about their childbirth experience may affect their ability to bond with their...

Unexpected Outcomes of Labor and Birth

This chapter has presented variations in the usual progression of labor and the possible medical interventions that could result. The next chapter discusses cesarean birth. If you are like most expectant parents, you are...

What is Episiotomy, and When to Use It?

An episiotomy is a surgical incision made from the vagina toward the rectum to enlarge the vaginal outlet. The incision is usually midline (straight), but can be mediolateral (angled to the side). (See Figure...

Active Management of Labor

Some physicians routinely practice active management of labor to ensure that labor will be completed within 12 hours. The standard, which originated in Ireland, waits for the woman to be in active labor before...